Welcome to Syntax, a course covering the syntax you need to know for first and second-year syntax courses. If you have any questions or suggestions, please email them to

The lecture series is now complete. If you have any additional topics that you would like to be covered, please email with your suggestion, as well as some sources or references so I can cover exactly what you’re looking for. The final exam will only cover up to the “Islands” video.


Introduction and Grammatical Categories

Introduction and Glossing
Verbs and Their Grammatical Properties
Nouns and Their Grammatical Properties
Adjectives, Adverbs, and Prepositions

X-Bar Theory and Constituency

Tree Structure Relations
X-Bar Theory
X-Bar Theory Practice

Lexical and Functional Phrases

DP Hypothesis
Complementizer Phrases (CPs)
Tense Phrases (TPs) and Modals
Clauses and Subordination
Theta Roles and Theta Grids
Expletives and Extended Projection Principle (EPP)
Perfect and Progressive Phrases

Movement and Case

Movement and Subject-Auxiliary Inversion
Do-Support and Negation
VP-Internal Subject Hypothesis
Case Theory
Raising Verbs
Control Verbs and PRO
Passive Constructions
Relative Clauses
Binding Theory
Binding Principles


Final Exam (PDF)
Final Exam – Solutions (PDF)